09, 2021 / 12:45 PM / by NBS / Header Image Credit: NBS
The purpose of the study was to collect evidence-based data on awareness and perception of intending and returned migrants on dangers of irregular migration as well as government effort towards combating prevalence of irregular migration in Nigeria. A comprehensive understanding and knowledge of the existing anti-migration laws and enforcement institution can help reshape government's measures towards addressing and curbing irregular migration. The study would enable policymakers target interventions that address humanitarian needs and mitigate root causes of irregular movement across international borders.
Enumeration Areas and Household selection was done using the National Integrated Survey for Household (NISH) sample frame. Computer-based questionnaires were used as instrument for data collection. The survey took place in four selected states namely Delta, Edo, Imo, and Lagos. NBS provided the technical expertise and manpower for the conduct of the survey while IOM provided the required funding.
The result of survey shows that, the mean age of respondents from Delta State was 30, while that of Edo, Lagos and Imo States was 29.5, 31.3 and 31.1, respectively. Imo has the highest male respondents with 52.3 percent closely followed by Delta state with 50.77 percent and the least state with male respondents is Edo state with 47.79 percent which happens to be the state with the highest female respondents with 50.21 percent.
Lagos state has the highest non-indigene respondents which is more than the other states (Delta, Edo, and Imo) with 80.84 percent, while its indigene respondents 1s 19.16 percent. Imo state has the highest number of indigene respondents with 97.60 percent with the least non-indigene respondents at 2.40 percent.
Most of the respondents are Never-Married cutting across 3 states with 53.82 percent, 51.83 percent, and 51.31 percent from Imo, Edo, and Delta states, respectively.
In terms of Level of Education Reached, respondents with secondary education dominated other levels of education reached across the four states with Imo state taking the lead with 64.02 percent. Lagos state has the highest number of respondents with Tertiary Education at 28.19 percent. Number of respondents with Primary Education level attained has the least representation.
The percentage of respondents that were engaged in economic activity indicates that, Edo and Lagos States had 31.8 percent each, while that of Delta and Imo States was 19.6 and 16.8 percent, respectively.
The survey result further shows that among the respondents intending to travel in search of greener pasture to developed countries; Imo State had the highest with 67.7 percent among males while the least was Lagos State with 49.7 percent. The highest for females was recorded by Lagos State with 50.3 percent.
The choice of route by the respondents with intention to travel out of Nigeria indicates that Lagos State has the highest among the male respondents who choose the desert route with 91.7 percent followed by Delta State with 78.9 percent while the least was Edo State with 57.4 percent. Delta State recorded the highest among male migrants who intend to use the air route with 55.7 percent.
The survey also shows that Delta State recorded the highest among the male respondents that have the intention of travelling out of Nigeria but are not aware of government policies on migration with 58.0 percent.
The result of the migration survey also shows that among the respondents that have the intention of travelling outside Nigeria, Delta state has the highest of number of male respondents who are aware of a migration resource centers in the country; 60.6 percent of the respondents in Delta state are aware of the migration resource center compared to 58.8 percent of male respondents among those not aware.
The state with the highest percentage of male intending migrants that are aware of the risk of detention faced in the course of migration was Delta State with 61.4 percent as against 56.3 percent of male intending migrants among those not aware.
The female intending migrants that are aware of sexual abuse as a risk in the course migration for Lagos State was 47.7 percent as compared to 38.5 percent that are not aware of the risk that is involved. The awareness for risk of death for male intending migrants of Delta State had 61.4 percent as compared to 52.6 percent who are not aware.
Greener pasture account for the most prominent reason why returned migrants from Imo and Lagos states travelled across international borders in search for better life with 93.8 percent and 93.3 percent, respectively.
The busiest means of transportation by the returned migrants are the desert and the sea which is used more frequently by the male with 100 percent each for Delta and Lagos states while of all the means of transportation the most used by the female is the desert with 40 percent. Substantial percentage of the Female returned migrants went through the gory experience of sexual abuse at the point of destination representing 100 percent in Lagos and Delta state followed by forced prostitution while most males suffer detention and hunger.
Dominant percentage of the returned migrants do not have passport and visa, and this represents 76.9 percent majorly from Delta state followed by 76.3 percent from Edo state. Male returned migrants mostly return because of crime and lack of travel documents representing 100 percent from Edo and Delta state followed by voluntary return with 91.3 percent and the inability to get a job with 81.8 percent while female returned mostly because of deceit with 50 percent. Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration and the Involuntary Return dominated how the returned migrants sojourned back to their homeland with 100 percent male from Delta.
The most preferred destination of returned migrants is North America with highest respondents from Imo State. Job creation was largely suggested by the returned migrants as a panacea to discouraging irregular migration across the four states. Delta sate leads the distribution with 79.71 percent.
Large percentage of the respondents from Imo state say they are not aware of Migrants Resource Centre with 90.19 percent responses. Edo state Returned Migrants received more training on skill acquisition than any other state from the available record with 19.64 percent.
Imo state respondents stand out in terms of assistance received after training at 78.57 percent. Most returned migrants are currently practicing what they were trained on with 100 percent, 85.7 percent, 59.1 percent from Lagos, Imo, and Edo states, respectively.