Monday, Nov 20, 2017 2:13PM/ MO Ibrahim Foundation
The Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) is a tool that measures and monitors governance performance in African countries. The Mo Ibrahim Foundation defines governance as the provision of the political, social and economic public goods and services that every citizen has the right to expect from their state, and that a state has the responsibility to deliver to its citizens. In the IIAG, country performance in delivering governance is measured across four key components that effectively provide indicators of a country’s Overall Governance performance.
The key components that form the four categories of the IIAG as described in the diagram below are Safety & Rule of Law, Participation & Human Rights, Sustainable Economic Opportunity and Human Development. Each of these categories contains subcategories under which we have organised various indicators that provide quantifiable measures of the overarching dimensions of governance. In total, the IIAG contains 100 indicators.
Published since 2007, the IIAG was created to provide a quantifiable tool to measure and monitor governance performance in African countries, to assess their progress over time and to support the development of effective and responsive policy solutions. The IIAG focuses on measuring outputs and outcomes of policy, rather than declarations of intent, de jure statutes and levels of expenditure.
The IIAG provides data measuring the governance performance across all the dimensions described above for all 54 African countries for the years from 2000-2017. In order to provide a broad, documented and impartial picture of governance performance in every African country, the indicators used to measure governance in Africa are collected from 36 independent sources. For an indicator to be included in the IIAG, it has to meet certain criteria. For a full explanation of how the IIAG is constructed, please see the methodology on our website.
The entire Index time series is updated every year to ensure that each new IIAG provides the most accurate data available. This process ensures that the Index is the most robust and up-to-date dashboard of the state of governance in every African country.
The Mo Ibrahim Foundation is fully transparent. This report publishes only a summary of results and methodology. We publish all country scores, full details and all information regarding the construction of the IIAG on our website.
The 2017 Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) covers 17 years’ worth of data from 2000-2016 inclusive for all 54 African countries. The construction method provides vast amounts of data. In total there are 211,889 data points.
To construct the 2017 IIAG, the Foundation’s Research Team collected 177 variables that measure governance concepts from 36 sources. These were combined to form 100 indicators, which are organised under the IIAG’s key governance dimensions; the 14 sub-categories and four categories that make up the Overall Governance score. Including all the data collected from source and the calculations made expressly for the IIAG, there are a total of 251 different measures of governance in Africa in the 2017 IIAG.
These range from indicators that measure specific issues such as the Independence of the Judiciary, which is one part of the broader sub-category measure Rule of Law, which is in turn one part of the overarching category measure Safety & Rule of Law.
Structure & levels
To fully assess any country’s governance performance, it is vital to drill down beyond the broader measures such as the Overall Governance score to take into account country performances across the different governance dimensions encompassed by the categories, sub-categories and indicators of the IIAG. Country performance can vary across these dimensions.
For example, in the 2017 IIAG Tunisia ranks 7th in Overall Governance, scoring 65.5 (out of 100.0). The country is in the top ten in each governance category in the IIAG except Safety & Rule of Law, where it ranks 14th and has shown the sixth largest deterioration on the continent in the sub-category Personal Safety over the last ten-year period. Meanwhile, in the same period, it is the most improved country in the category Participation & Human Rights, driven by an improvement of almost +60.0 in the Participation sub-category, the biggest improvement shown by any country on the continent over this period.
The benefit of the IIAG structure is that country or group performance can be assessed holistically through the broader measures but users can also drill down to assess performance in specific governance issues.
Scores, ranks & trends
IIAG results can be classified into three main types: score, rank and trend. All three results must be considered when studying the Index, as each type of result gives context to the others. For example, looking only at rank or score without considering trends overlooks the important trajectories that countries follow. In the 2017 IIAG for example, Ghana ranks in the top ten highest scoring countries (8th) with a score of 65.0 (out of 100.0) in Overall Governance.
In the last ten years however it is also the eighth most deteriorated country on the continent in Overall Governance having declined by -1.5 points in this period. In the same way that trends should be taken into account when looking at scores and ranks, when looking at trends it is important to take into account the level of score and rank. Zimbabwe, for example, shows the third largest improvement on the continent in Overall Governance (+9.5) over ten years but still ranks in the bottom half (40th) on the continent with a score of 45.4 which is below the African average score of 50.8.
By averaging the scores of countries, the IIAG provides group analysis for a variety of different group compositions. For this report, key findings are often provided for ‘Africa’. These results are the average of the scores of 54 African countries, at all levels of the IIAG. However, Africa is a diverse continent with vastly different countries, and readers of this report are advised not to over analyse the continental findings.
This report focuses on presenting the top-level findings of the 2017 IIAG for Africa as well as other groups, such as regions. In-depth analysis of countries and other groupings are available via our other publications and tools on our website.
Country and group trends can vary drastically depending on the base year for analysis. Whilst a country can register improvement or decline over the last ten years, it may show the opposite trend in the last five years. The IIAG results reveal that governance performance is not linear. Countries regularly improve or decline between years. Since the start of the IIAG time series (2000), Rwanda is the only country in Africa to show year-on-year improvement of their Overall Governance score. No country registers year-on-year decline.
Due to the constantly moving nature of governance performance, the 2017 IIAG analysis focuses on assessing trends in the last five years (2012-2016), within the context of the last decade (2007-2016).
This analysis provides long-term findings as well as focusing on the short-term, in order to provide a more nuanced assessment of the performance and trajectories of countries, regions and groups. The intention of this analysis is to illustrate that whilst the IIAG can be used to view long-term trends, due to the changing nature of governance performance, it is important to assess both the long-term and short-term alongside each other.
Whilst a country can either improve or deteriorate over the decade, the trend displayed in recent years shows important and useful characteristics for analysis.
Whilst registering improvement over the decade, a country can, over the last five years:
• Increase its rate of improvement;
• Slow its rate of improvement;
• Show recent decline.
Similarly, a country showing decline over the decade can, over the last five years:
• Increase its rate of decline;
• Slow its rate of decline;
• Show recent improvement.
In order to capture these ‘trends within trends’, countries are classified according to the direction and size of their annual average trend in the most recent five years, compared to the direction and size of their annual average trend shown over a decade.
The time periods used for analysis are:
Ten-year period: 2007-2016
Five-year period: 2012-2016
To determine whether progress/decline is quickening/slowing, the annual average trend for each period is calculated.
The annual average trend for the ten-year period is the total change in score between 2007 and 2016, divided by nine (the number of annual time periods experienced).
The annual average trend for the five-year period is the total change in score between 2012 and 2016, divided by four (the number of annual time periods experienced).
In total, there are six groups of trajectories: ‘Increasing Improvement’, ‘Slowing Improvement’, ‘Warning Signs’, ‘Bouncing Back’, ‘Slowing Deterioration’ or ‘Increasing Deterioration’.
These classifications are applied to all measures in the IIAG, and are used for groups as well as countries.
2. #AnambraDecides2017:Obiano wins 2nd term, confirms NCCN prediction
3. FG has remained Proactive in its Diversification Policy - Buhari
4. How important is the Ease of Doing Business to Nigeria?
5. NCCN Sub-National Competitiveness Index: Lagos leads overall ranking
6. Nigeria Ranked 125 Out of 137 Economies in the Global Competitiveness Report 2017–2018
7. FG to launch ICRC PPP Contracts Disclosure Portal on September 22
8. #ConstitutionReview: Senate reviewed and considered 33 Bills from Committee Report
9. Senate calls for Adequate Financial Provision for NEDC in 2018 Budget
10. Illegal Recruitment: Senate to Accelerate Passage of Existing Vacancies Bill, Says Saraki
11. Nigeria's Business Climate and Ease of Doing Business Initiatives
12. Building Institutions key to the advancement of Nations-Dr Obiageli Ezekwesili