NBS Publishes 2016 Human Development Indices for UNDP Nigeria Human Development Report


Friday, October 05, 2018 / 04:00 PM / NBS   



Human development indicators, generally, provide the basis for quantitative assessment of the achievement of countries in all areas of human endeavour. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of human progress. It considers the average achievements in three basic dimensions of human development; a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. The indicators considered in this document are composites of socio-economic factors appropriate for assessing human development achievements in each State of the Federation. Until 2010, HDI was defined as a simple arithmetic average of normalized indices in the dimensions of health, education and income. At the moment, life expectancy (le) remains the only indicator for the health dimension while the indicators for income and education were appropriately replaced.


The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) adjusts the Human Development Index (HDI) for inequality in distribution of each dimension across the population. It is based on a distribution-sensitive class of composite indices proposed by Foster, Lopez-Calva, and Szekely (2005), which draws on the Atkinson (1970) family of inequality measures. It is computed as a geometric mean of geometric means, calculated across the population for each dimension separately (Alkire and Foster, 2010). The IHDI accounts for inequalities in HDI dimensions by “discounting” each dimension’s average value according to its level of inequality. The IHDI equals the HDI when there is no inequality across people but is less than the HDI as inequality rises. In this sense, the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for this inequality), while the HDI can be viewed as an index of “potential” human development (or the maximum level of HDI) that could be achieved if there was no inequality. The “loss” in potential human development due to inequality is given by the difference between the HDI and the IHDI and can be expressed as a percentage.

The new indices were: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI), Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), and Gender Inequality Index (GII).

In computing the 2016 Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) in Nigeria, most of the data required for the current computations were sourced from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) surveys and publications that provided information on the relevant indicators. Other relevant sources includes Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) such as the National Population Commission (NPopC); States Independent Electoral Commission (SIEC), Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), Bureau of Local Government and Chieftaincy Affairs, State House of Assembly, Office of the Secretary to the State Government, State National Assembly and among others. Additionally, a quick supplementary survey was conducted in 2017 to close the data gaps especially in areas where the data were unavailable to include:


  • Educational Attainment among households
  • Maternal Death
  • General Mortality (i.e. deaths in the last 12 months)
  • Employment History
  • Water and Sanitation
  • Housing Characteristics
  • Anthropometry


Four teams were constituted to derive the indices required for the computation of IHDI namely; Gross National Income (GNI), Gender Inequality Index (GII), Multi-dimensional Poverty Index (MPI) and Human Development Index (HDI).


2.1 Objective

The main objective of survey is to source data required that were not readily available or current to compute the 2016 Nigeria Human Development Index (HDI)


2.2 Coverage

The survey took into consideration the 36 states of the Federation and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. The Surveys covered households in both urban and rural Enumeration Areas (EAs), which were canvassed through the National Integrated Survey of Households (NISH).  Some MDAs at the Federal and State levels were covered through the System of Administrative Statistics (SAS). Thus, all NBS systems of data collection were used for the computation of the current HDI.


2.3 Scope

The main subject areas covered in all the survey modules include:

·         Demographic Characteristics

·         General Mortality (i.e. deaths in the last 12 months)

·         Maternal Mortality

·         Working History

·         Water and Sanitation

·         Housing Characteristics

·         Anthropometry

·         Information from Cement Companies and Oil Refineries

·         Information from selected MDAs


2.4 Sample Size (and Coverage)

A total sample of one hundred and twenty (120) Enumeration Areas (EAs) was studied in each of the 36 states and FCT.  In each EA, a sample of fifteen (15) households (HHs) was selected for study. By this arrangement, a total of 1,800 households per state were sampled, resulting in a national sample size or coverage of 66,600 households.


2.5 Survey Instruments

Instruments and equipment that were used the data collection are; Paper Questionnaires, Manual of Instructions for field staff, Enumeration Area (EA) Sketch Maps, List of Selected EAs and HH Selection Sheet, Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) Device, Measuring boards and  Weighing Scales


2.6 Training for Fieldwork

Two (2) levels of training were adopted. The first level was the training of trainers (TOT) held at NBS Headquarters, Abuja. The training comprised of 37 trainers/monitors and six coordinators at the zones.  In all, 43 officers were trained at the first level. The training lasted two days. The second level training was held in all the 37 NBS state offices, including Abuja. The trainees at the second level included the interviewers, field supervisors, NBS State Officers and Zonal Controllers.  The training also lasted two days.


2.7 Fieldwork Arrangement

The fieldwork was carried out by three (3) teams per state. Each team comprised one (1) Team leader and four (4) Team mate. One (1) female were selected among the team mate to be in charge of anthropometric measurement in the households.


The teams conducted interviews using the General Household Mortality and Labour Force questionnaire. The Trainer and State Officer in each states lodged and retrieved MDAs questionnaires


2.8      Monitoring and Coordination

  •           There was monitoring exercise in all the 36 states and the FCT, Abuja. The monitoring exercise involved the Officers from NBS Headquarters, State Officers and Zonal Controllers. For quality assurance, monitoring exercises were carried out at various stages of the data collection. Senior officers from the NBS Headquarters, NBS State Officers and Zonal Controllers were all involved in the monitoring and coordination of the data collection exercise.


2.9 Retrieval

Data collected by the use of Computer Assisted personal Interview (CAPI) were transmitted online to the NBS Data Processing Center in Abuja. All completed paper questionnaires were returned by the monitoring officers to the center for data processing. 


2.10 Data Processing

All primary data collected were subjected to data reliability tests to ascertain the quality. Result tables were generated, using the already prepared programs.


Click Here to Download 2016 Human Development Indices PDF Report

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