Understanding Emefiele's Silver Bullet - Sonnie Ayere


Friday, January 24, 2020   /  06:07PM  /  By Sonnie Babatunde Ayere, DLM  /  Header Image Credit: www.louisianacoin.com


In ancient mythology and folklore, silver is seen to have magical powers, used to conquer and combat monsters and used to ultimately overcome challenges faced by Knights and heroes of old.


In Nigeria, one of the monsters that have needed to be faced head-on is a regime of high interest rates and its impending effects on the growth of the country. Most recently, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), led by Governor Godwin Emefiele, decided to take on the challenge of addressing this deterrent to domestic economic growth in Nigeria.


Historically in Nigeria, interest rates have always been high, and this can be directly attributed to the monetary system in vogue since 2009, which sought to use FGN bonds/T-bills and OMO bills as a means of attracting US$ into Nigeria to help stabilize the Naira.


Following this long unnecessary spell of extremely high interest rates in Nigeria from 2009 to 2019, it is gratifying to see that once again, it is possible to experience the rebirth of a sustainable credit economy in Nigeria; one that can support ordinary citizens as well as infrastructure growth.


Yes, many commercial bankers, pension fund managers, asset managers, and traditional buy-side investors do not like these lower rates. Some use old archaic economic theories that question how inflation (at 11%) can be higher than the treasury risk-free rate (at 3%). Even when you look at inflation against yields on fixed income securities, it would be inflationary expectations that an economist will analyze and not the spot inflation per se.


Why so? If I were to purchase a 10year bond, with a coupon rate of 10% and spot inflation is 11% today, you could argue that you are getting a negative return today. However, this would only be for the first year as inflation the next year could be 9% or could even have dropped to 7% in year 5 and so on. Therefore, over the duration of the bond, my coupon rate begins to exceed future spot inflation rates as described above and therefore I'm in the money (bond price in premium).


If, however, I did not buy that bond and inflation falls as described above, the new bonds will have increasingly lower coupons and my profit as an investor becomes much less. Who also says that the short-term risk-free rate (T-Bills) must be above inflation? Where an investor wants above inflation returns, then such investor takes the appropriate risk/reward opportunities. That is what all other institutional investors, worldwide do.


Why the clamour for low interest rates? 

The answer is simple. No economy can expect sustainable real growth when long term rates are above single digit. In order to attack inflation in Nigeria, we need to combat the high cost of the factors of production i.e. power, infrastructure (hard & soft), logistics, transportation, and a host of others. Long-term funding therefore becomes critical, most importantly the cost of financing at the risk-free rates that make our commercial banks, pension funds, etc. happy. Financing these critical components of economic development for the country become utterly impossible, leaving us in the rot we have become accustomed to. However, with Emefiele's silver bullet, projects that will reduce the cost of production in Nigeria and enable us morph into a country that can produce competitively rather than continuously import, begins to actualize.


Why do we call it a silver bullet?  

The lower interest rates you see today is a matter of basic economic supply & demand, induced by removing domestic investors from CBN's Open Market Operations (OMO). Henceforth, domestic investors have been directed by the CBN to buy domestic securities issued by the Federal Republic of Nigeria, namely Treasury Bills and FGN Bonds. The result is that the demand for treasury bills and FGN bonds now far exceeds its supply and as such the yields have been adjusted to their normal economic equilibrium, dictated by investor appetite. OMO securities are now the preserve of a bilateral financing agreement between the CBN and foreign portfolio investors.


In other words, Foreign Portfolio Investors (FPIs) will be willing to buy Nigerian OMO bills at a negotiated yield that does not distort the Nigerian domestic yield curve, fostering a credit market in the country and allowing Nigeria fund its infrastructure with long term economically viable Naira. I recently read an article from an international rating agency criticizing this move by the CBN, sighting illiquidity in the OMO securities due to a much smaller investor base. If a window was opened to foreign investors to sell to the CBN whenever necessary, then this totally makes the bills liquid and defeats that theory from the rating agency.


With regards to the fear of a Naira devaluation, again this is an inaccurate conclusion. To the extent that the negotiable rates between the CBN and FPIs remain attractive, the probability of a run on the Naira remains mute. This coupled with the Import & Export FX window and CBN's timely interventions, we can look forward to having a relatively stable currency and low economically viable interest rates that will help grow the economy into a stronger future.


So, should we like Emefiele's silver bullet?


This answer is a resounding yes.


Nigerians, lets support this crucial initiative from the CBN for a brighter tomorrow and let's help ourselves breakout from our history of round tripping banking.


Congratulations to Governor Godwin Emefiele and his team at the CBN for a job well done.


Proshare Nigeria Pvt. Ltd.



This article is written by Sonnie Babatunde Ayere - a trained financial economist and investment banker. Mr Ayere currently runs the investment banking outfit of DLM Capital Group, prior to that he ran UBA Global Markets now United Capital Plc. He had spent many years working for the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and various international commercial and investment banks in the UK and US. 

 Proshare Nigeria Pvt. Ltd.


Related News - Monetary Policy

1.      CBN MPC Retains MPR and Liquidity Ratio; Raises CRR to 27.5% In First Meeting of 2020

2.     MPC Preview: Dovish Stance but Hawkish Actions

3.     Ignoring LIBOR Cessation May Raise US Leveraged Loan Credit Risk

4.     The MPC Members In One Accord; Verdict Of The Committee Was Unanimous

5.     Personal Statements By The MPC Members At The 127 MPC Meeting Of Nov 25-26, 2019

6.     CBN's Regulatory Measures To Improve Lending To The Real Sector: Impact And Challenges

7.     GDP Growth: How Far Can Monetary Policy Go?

8.     Rates Continue to Decline as Banks Struggle to Meet CBN's 65% Minimum LDR

9.     Pick-up In Private-sector Lending, More Needed

10.  Emefiele Lists Priorities for 2020

11.   How CBN's November 2019 MPC Meeting Affects the Common Man

12.  Nigeria's Central Bank Digs From A Pit - A Review of Year-End 2019 MPC Decision

13.  CBN Communique No. 127 of the MPC Meeting - Nov 25 - 26, 2019

14.  Nigeria MPC Maintains Status Quo At Final Meeting Of The Year 2019

15.  The Central Bank Of Nigeria's OMO - Implication Of The Recent CBN Circular

16.  Differences Between CBN OMO Bills and The Nigerian Treasury Bills


Proshare Nigeria Pvt. Ltd.


Related News - Reviews & Outlook

1.      NCM2020 (4) - Africa's Projected 4% Growth Is Insufficient To Make A Dent

2.     FBNQuest 2020 Research Outlook: Global Headwinds Moderating, Domestic Calm

3.     United Capital To Host 2020 Outlook Breakfast Session

4.     NSR H1 2020 (11) - Fixed Income - Liquidity Surfeit to Keep Yields Subdued

5.     NCM2020 (2) - Significant Downtrend Recorded in Global Growth; Major Economies Negatively Affected

6.     FY 2020 Outlook: Treading Uncharted Waters

7.     Increasing External Risks and Weak Public Finances Keep 2020 Outlook on SSA Sovereigns Negative

8.     NSR H1 2020 (10) - Monetary Policy - CBN Caressing Both FPIs and Economic Growth

9.     NOVA Economic Outlook H1 2020 - Nigerian Economy To Grow By 2.4% YoY Over 2020

10.  NSR H1 2020 (9) - GDP - Economic Growth Should Remain Anemic, Flatlined at 2.2%

11.   NSR H1 2020 (8) - Inflation Set for a Double Whammy in 2020!

12.  Year Ahead 2020 - Re-risking The Financial System

13.  NSR H1 2020 (7) - Currency - How Long Can The CBN Keep Up?

14.  NSR H1 2020 (6) - Balance of Payment - Edge of the Cliff

15.  NSR H1 2020 (5) - EM Portfolio Flows - Happy Days Ahead for EM Foreign Portfolio Flows

16.  Fitch Revises IHS's Outlook to Negative; Affirms at 'B plus'


Proshare Nigeria Pvt. Ltd.

Proshare Nigeria Pvt. Ltd.

Related News