Monday, December 18, 2017 10.25AM /
1.What are futures?
Futures are an agreement to buy or sell an asset on
a specific future date at a specific price.
Once the futures contract has been entered, both
parties have to buy and sell at the agreed-upon price, irrespective of what the
actual market price is at the contract execution date.
The goal is not necessarily profit maximization.
It’s a risk management tool, often used in financial markets to hedge against
the risk of changing prices of assets that are bought and sold on a regular
Futures are also used in portfolios to balance out
price fluctuations on investments, where the underlying asset is particularly
These contracts are negotiated and traded on a
futures exchange which acts as the intermediary.
2. How do futures
There are two positions you can take on a futures
contract: long or short.
If you take a long position, you agree to buy an
asset in the future at a specific price when the contract expires. When you
take a short position, you agree to sell an asset at a set price when the
A good way to explain this is using the example of
an airline who wants to hedge against the rising price of fuel by entering into
a futures contract.
Say jet fuel trades at $2 per gallon. An airline
expecting the price of oil to rise, buys a three-month futures contract for
1,000 gallons at current prices. The contract is, therefore, worth $2,000.
If in three months, when the contract expires, the
price of one gallon of jet fuels is $3, the airline saved $1,000.
The supplier will happily enter into a futures
contract in order to ensure a steady market for fuel, even when prices are
high. And the same contract will also protect them if the price of fuel
In this case, both parties are protecting themselves
against the volatility of fuel prices.
There are also investors who speculate with futures
contracts rather than using it as a protection mechanism.
They will deliberately go long when the price of a
commodity is low. As prices rise, the contract becomes more valuable, and the
investor could decide to trade the contract with another investor before it
expires, at a higher price.
3. What are Bitcoin
Futures are not just for physical assets; they can
be traded on financial assets as well.
With Bitcoin futures, the contract will be based on
the price of Bitcoin and speculators can place a “bet” on what they believe the
price of Bitcoin will be in the future.
In addition, it enables investors to speculate on
the price of Bitcoin without actually having to own Bitcoin.
It has two major consequences.
First, while Bitcoin itself remains unregulated,
Bitcoin futures can be traded on regulated exchanges. This is good news for
those who are concerned about the risks related to the industry’s lack of
Second, in areas where trading Bitcoin is banned,
Bitcoin futures allow investors to still speculate on the price of Bitcoin.
4. How do they work?
A Bitcoin future will work on exactly the same
principles as futures on traditional financial assets.
By anticipating whether the price of Bitcoin will go
up or down, speculators will either go long or short on a Bitcoin futures
For example, if an individual owns one Bitcoin
priced at $18,000 (hypothetically) and foresees that the price will drop in the
future, to protect themselves, they can sell a Bitcoin futures contract at the
current price, which is $18,000.
Close to the settlement date the price of Bitcoin,
along with the price of the Bitcoin futures contract, would have dropped. The
investor now decides to buy back the Bitcoin futures.
If the contract trades for $16,000 close to the
future settlement date, the investor has made $2,000 and therefore protected
their investment by selling high and buying low.
This is a basic example of how Bitcoin futures work
and the exact terms of each future contract may be more complex depending on
the exchange, which will include minimum and maximum price limits.
What do Bitcoin futures mean for the Bitcoin price?
In the short-term, it pushes the price upwards as
the overall interest in the cryptocurrency spikes.
The day after Bitcoin futures were launched on the
Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), for the first time on a major regulated
exchange, the price jumped by almost 10% to $16,936.Similarly, in the run-up to the launch of Bitcoin futures on one of the world’s biggest exchanges, CME, the Bitcoin price broke through the $20,000 barrier.